There is something in the aroma of hemp that soothes the mind and body. Whether it’s the sweet fruity taste of a Lemon haze cbd or the skunk smell that bursts from a cracked gem of Sour Diesel. We know that something is happening, but most of the time, we classify it all as a pure smell and proceed forward in the mixture.
In this article, I want to explain to you what the cannabis terpenes are and the properties of the eight most dominant types of hemp.
What are cannabis terpenes?
Secretes in the same glands that produce cannabinoids such as THC and CBD. Cannabis terpenes are aromatic oils that colour hemp varieties with distinctive aromas such as citrus fruits, berries, mint and pine.
Not unlike other plants and flowers, the development of terpenes in cannabis started for adaptive purposes: repelling predators and attracting pollinators. Many factors influence the event of a plant’s terpenes, including climate, weather, age and ripeness, fertilisers, soil type and even time of day.
And each strain tends towards a type and composition of different cannabis terpenes. In other words, a strain like Gravity Cheese and its descendants will probably smell like cheese, and the offspring of the strawberry will often inherit the smell of the berries.
In recent decades, most cannabis varieties have been bred to contain high levels of THC and, as a result, other cannabinoids such as CBD have fallen to trace only quantities. This has led many to believe that cannabis terpenes play a crucial role in differentiating the effects of various hemp strains.
Every single terpene cannabis is associated with unique effects. Some promote relaxation and act as anti-stress, while others encourage concentration and sharpness. Linalool, for example, is believed to be relaxing while limonene improves mood.
The effect profile of a given terpene can change in the presence of other compounds in a phenomenon known as the entourage effect. More research is needed to understand the impact of each terpene when used in harmony with others.
Trichomes and terpenes, what you need to know
In hemp, terpenes are made in the trichomes of the plant. Trichomes are the shiny, sticky, mushroom-shaped crystals that cover the leaves and buds. Trichomes on cannabis act as a defence mechanism in nature, protecting the plant from insects and animals by producing fragrant cannabis terpenes that repel these dangers. As human beings, we smell these terpenes and can make inferences about the strain and the possible physiological effects that the pressure can have.
Benefits of terpenes
Hemp is an incredibly diverse plant about its biological composition and the potential benefits – and terpenes – are no exception. There are over 100 different terpenes identified in the cannabis plant. While the differences may be subtle, much progress has been made in making it easy to classify terpenes and their effects for patients and consumers. In general, terpenes can be subdivided into sweet, sour, spicy or bitter – with each category further broken down into more specific odours. These specific odours are determined by some strains, which in turn are related to the effects of that plant. In fact, to help with this. Many companies have produced terpene wheels to help people better understand this. More on this in a while.
Aroma: Pine tree
Vaporise to: 311º F (155ºC)
Potential effects: vigilance, memory conservation, neutralise some effects of THC
Potential medical value: treatment of asthma, pain, inflammation, ulcers, anxiety, cancer
Also found: Pine needles, rosemary, basil, parsley.
|Aroma: cardamom, cloves, musky, earthy, herbal
Vaporise to: 332º F (167ºC)
Potential effects: “couchlock”, relaxing sedative effect
Potential medical value: antioxidant, treatment of insomnia, pain and inflammation
Also found: mango, citronella, thyme, hops
Vaporise to: 348ºF (176ºC)
Potential effects: elevated mood, stress relief
Potential medical value: treatment of anxiety, depression, inflammation, pain and cancer
Also found: fruit peel, rosemary, juniper, peppermint
|Aroma: pepper, spicy, woody, cloves
Vaporise to: 266º F (130ºC)
Potential effects: stress relief
Potential medical value: pain treatment, anxiety/depression, ulcers
Also found: black pepper, cloves, cinnamon
Vaporise to: 388ºF (198ºC)
Potential effects: mood improvement, sedation
Potential medical value: treatment of anxiety, depression, insomnia, pain, inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases
Also found: lavender
|Aroma: hop, woody, earthy
Vaporise to: 222º F (106ºC)
Potential medical value: anti-inflammatory
Also found: hops, coriander, cloves, basil
|Aroma: sweet, herbal and woody
Vaporise to: 122ºF (50ºC)
Potential medical value: antiviral, anti-fungal, antiseptic, decongestant, antibacterial
Also found: mint, parsley, pepper, basil, mango, orchids and kumquats
|Aroma: Piney, floral and herbal
Vaporise to: 366ºF (186ºC)
Potential effects: relaxing
Potential medical value: antioxidant, sedative, antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-cancer
Also found: nutmeg, tea tree, conifers, apples, cumin and lilacs